Education Materials

Mount Sinai Hospital is a University of Toronto patient care, teaching, and research centre.
Mount Sinai Hospital is a University of Toronto patient care, teaching, and research centre.

Staff Directory
Karen Green
Kelly S. MacDonald, M.D., FRCPC
Infectious Disease Consultant
Mount Sinai Hospital, Room 1484
600 University Ave.
Toronto, Ontario
M5G 1X5
Phone #: 416-586-8879
Fax #: 416-586-8746



Dr. Kelly MacDonald received her Bachelors Degree from Queen's University in 1983 and her Medical Degree from the University of Manitoba in 1987.  She was trained in Internal Medicine at the University of Washington, and is certified in Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. She did her post-doctoral training at the University of Manitoba and the University of Toronto. 

Dr. MacDonald is the Director of the HIV Research Program and holder of the Ontario HIV Treatment Network (OHTN) Endowed Chair in HIV Research at the University of Toronto. She is an Associate Professor of Medicine and a practicing Microbiologist and Infectious Disease Consultant at Mount Sinai Hospital and the University Health Network. As a clinician scientist her research interests include the studies of the role of human leucocyte antigens (HLA) in mediating resistance to HIV and Hepatitis C and their role in viral vaccine design. She has focused on the use of DNA immunization as a vaccine strategy and the use of anti-HLA alloimmune responses as well as T cell epitopes as novel targets for HIV vaccine development.

She supervises research labs in Toronto and in Nairobi, Kenya where she has graduate students and post-doctoral fellows involved in studies of the immunobiology and epidemiology of HIV infection.  She is the research representative on the Board of the Ontario HIV Treatment Network. She has served as a member of the Federal Ministerial Council on HIV/AIDS and is currently the co-chair of the HIV vaccine track of the Canadian Vaccine Network (CANVAC).

Recent Publications

  1. Ambagala AP, Marsh A, Chan J, Pilon R, Fournier J, Mazzulli T, Sandstrom P, Willer DO, MacDonald KS.
    Isolation and characterization of cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) cytomegalovirus.
    (CyCMV). Virology. 2011 Jan 25. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 21272907.

  2. Foster SB, Lu M, Thompson B, Rich KC, Matukas LM, Mason R, Winchester R, MacDonald KS, Shearer WT.
    Association between HLA inheritance and asthma medication use in HIV positive children.
    AIDS. 2010 Aug 24;24(13):2133-5. PubMed PMID: 20613458.

  3. Kaul R, MacDonald KS, Nagelkerke NJ, Kimani J, Fowke K, Ball TB, Luo M, Kariri A, Jaoko W, Moses S, Rowland-Jones S, Plummer FA.
    HIV viral set point and host immune control in individuals with HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses prior to HIV acquisition.
    AIDS. 2010 Jun 19;24(10):1449-54. PubMed PMID: 20549840.

  4. Jones RB, Yue FY, Gu XX, Hunter DV, Mujib S, Gyenes G, Mason RD, Mohamed R, MacDonald KS, Kovacs C, Ostrowski MA.
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 escapes from interleukin-2-producing CD4+ T-cell responses without high-frequency fixation of mutations.
    J Virol. 2009 Sep;83(17):8722-32. Epub 2009 Jun 24. PubMed PMID: 19553327; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2738181.

  5. Christie NM, Willer DO, Lobritz MA, Chan JK, Arts EJ, Ostrowski MA, Cochrane A, Luscher MA, MacDonald KS.
    Viral fitness implications of variation within an immunodominant CD8+ T-cell epitope of HIV-1.
    Virology. 2009 May 25;388(1):137-46. Epub 2009 Apr 15. PubMed PMID: 19368950.

  6. Levinson P, Kaul R, Kimani J, Ngugi E, Moses S, , Broliden K, MacDonald KS Hirbod T; Kibera HIV Study Group.
    Levels of innate immune factors in genital fluids: association of alpha defensins and LL-37 with genital infections and increased HIV acquisition.
    AIDS. 2009 Jan 28;23(3):309-17. PubMed PMID: 19114868.

  7. Sheung A, Rebbapragada A, Shin LY, Dobson-Belaire W, Kimani J, Ngugi E, MacDonald KS, Bwayo JJ, Moses S, Gray-Owen S, Kaul R; Kibera HIV Study Group.
    Mucosal Neisseria gonorrhoeae coinfection during HIV acquisition is associated with enhanced systemic HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses.
    AIDS. 2008 Sep 12;22(14):1729-37. PubMed PMID: 18753933.

  8. Hirbod T, Kaul R, Reichard C, Kimani J, Ngugi E, Bwayo JJ, Nagelkerke N, Hasselrot K, Li B, Moses S; Kibera HIV Study Group, Broliden K, MacDonald KS.
    HIV-neutralizing immunoglobulin A and HIV-specific proliferation are independently associated with reduced HIV acquisition in Kenyan sex workers.
    AIDS. 2008 Mar 30;22(6):727-35. PubMed PMID: 18356602.

  9. Sheth PM, Sunderji S, Shin LY, Rebbapragada A, Huibner S, Kimani J, MacDonald KS, Ngugi E, Bwayo JJ, Moses S, Kovacs C, Loutfy M, Kaul R.
    Coinfection with herpes simplex virus type 2 is associated with reduced HIV-specific T cell responses and systemic immune activation.
    J Infect Dis. 2008 May 15;197(10):1394-401. PubMed PMID: 18444797.

  10. Kaul R, Pettengell C, Sheth PM, Sunderji S, Biringer A, Macdonald K, Walmsley S, Rebbapragada A
    The genital tract immune milieu: An important determinant of HIV susceptibility and secondary transmission
    J Reprod Immun Epub ahead of print, 3/27/2007.

  11. Iversen AK, Stewart-Jones G, Learn GH, Christie N, Sylvester-Hviid C, Armitage AE, Kaul R, Beattie T, Lee JK, Li Y, Chotiyarnwong P, Dong T, Xu X, Luscher MA, Macdonald K, Ullum H, Klarlund-Pedersen B, Skinhoj P, Fugger L, Buus S, Mullins JI, Jones EY, van der Merwe PA, McMichael AJ.
    Conflicting selective forces affect T cell receptor contacts in an immunodominant human immunodeficiency virus epitope.
    Nat Immunol. 2006 Jan 1; [Epub ahead of print], 1/1/2006.

  12. Sheth PM, Danesh A, Sheung A, Rebbapragada A, Shahabi K, Kovacs C, Halpenny R, Tilley D, Mazzulli T, Macdonald K, Kelvin D, Kaul R.
    Disproportionately High Semen Shedding of HIV Is Associated with Compartmentalized Cytomegalovirus Reactivation.
    J Infect Dis. 193(1):45-48., 1/1/2006.

  13. Bukczynski J, Wen T, Wang C, Christie N, Routy JP, Boulassel MR, Kovacs CM, Macdonald KS, Ostrowski M, Sekaly RP, Bernard NF, Watts TH.
    Enhancement of HIV-specific CD8 T cell responses by dual costimulation with CD80 and CD137L.
    J Immunol. 175(10):6378-6389., 11/15/2005.

  14. Sheth PM, Danesh A, Shahabi K, Rebbapragada A, Kovacs C, Dimayuga R, Halpenny R, Macdonald KS, Mazzulli T, Kelvin D, Ostrowski M, Kaul R.
    HIV-specific CD8+ lymphocytes in semen are not associated with reduced HIV shedding.
    J Immunol. 175(7):4789-4796., 10/1/2005.

  15. Su J, Luscher MA, Xiong Y, Rustam T, Amara RR, Rakasz E, Robinson HL, MacDonald KS.
    Novel simian immunodeficiency virus CTL epitopes restricted by MHC class I molecule Mamu-B*01 are highly conserved for long term in DNA/MVA-vaccinated, SHIV-challenged rhesus macaques.
    Int Immunol. 17(5):637-648., 4/11/2005.

  16. Yadav G, Saskin R, Ngugi E, Kimani J, Keli F, Fonck K, Macdonald KS, Bwayo JJ, Temmerman M, Moses S, Kaul R; Kibera HIV Study Group.
    Associations of sexual risk taking among Kenyan female sex workers after enrollment in an HIV-1 prevention trial.
    JAIDS. 38(3):329-334., 3/1/2005.

  17. Ho J, Uger RA, Zwick MB, Luscher MA, Barber BH, MacDonald KS.
    Conformational constraints imposed on a pan-neutralizing HIV-1 antibody epitope result in increased antigenicity but not neutralizing response.
    Vaccine. 23(13):1559-1573., 2/18/2005.

  18. Su J, Luscher M, Xiong Y, Amara RR, Robinson HL, MacDonald KS.
    Identification of New Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Epitopes in Rhesus Macaques Restricted by Mamu-B*01, A Common Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Molecule.
    Int Immunol. 17(5):637-48., 1/1/2005.

  19. Kaul R, Rutherford J, Rowland-Jones SL, Kimani J, Onyango JI, Fowke K, MacDonald K, Bwayo JJ, McMichael AJ, Plummer FA.
    HIV-1 Env-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses in exposed, uninfected Kenyan sex workers: a prospective analysis.
    AIDS. 18(15):2087-2089., 10/21/2004.

  20. Kaul R, Kimani J, Nagelkerke NJ, Fonck K, Ngugi EN, Keli F, MacDonald KS, Maclean IW, Bwayo JJ, Temmerman M, Ronald AR, Moses S; Kibera HIV Study Group.
    Monthly antibiotic chemoprophylaxis and incidence of sexually transmitted infections and HIV-1 infection in Kenyan sex workers: a randomized controlled trial.
    JAMA. 2004 Jun 2;291(21):2555-62. PubMed PMID: 15173146.
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